Summary An inequality basically compares two statements with different values. An inequality is written with either a greater than sign ( >) or less than sign (< ). If we divide or multiply by a negative number, the direction of the inequality is changed. To solve a quadratic inequality we need to carry out the … Read more

Set Theory

Summary The modern study of set theory was initiated by Georg Cantor and Richard Dedekind in the 1870s. A set is a collection of distinct objects, called elements of the set. Set’s are denoted by upper case letters and they are enclosed in curly brackets  {….}. When we write , this means x belongs to … Read more

Parametric Equations

Summary Parametric equations are just rectangular equations consisting of two or more variables. At times it is convenient to express x and y in terms of a third variable which is called a parameter. Parametric equation includes one equation to define each variable. For example in parametric equations: x = a cos(t) and y = … Read more


Summary When the terms of a sequence are added together a series is formed. A series can be denoted by a sigma notation    where a is the first value of n terms, b is the last value of the n terms and x is the expression of the given sequence. The formula for n-th … Read more


Summary A sequence is a set of numbers in a given order with a rule for obtaining the terms, written as:   . The nth term of a sequence is an expression that will allow us to calculate the term that is in the nth position of the sequence i.e    is the first term … Read more


Summary Random errors: an error that affects only some observed values and can be reduced by taking average of large number of readings. Systematic Error: an error which is built in the measurement device, it cannot be reduced, however it can be removed if we know the exact error and then we subtract it from … Read more