Parametric Equations

Summary Parametric equations are just rectangular equations consisting of two or more variables. At times it is convenient to express x and y in terms of a third variable which is called a parameter. Parametric equation includes one equation to define each variable. For example in parametric equations: x = a cos(t) and y = … Read more


Summary When the terms of a sequence are added together a series is formed. A series can be denoted by a sigma notation    where a is the first value of n terms, b is the last value of the n terms and x is the expression of the given sequence. The formula for n-th … Read more


Summary A sequence is a set of numbers in a given order with a rule for obtaining the terms, written as:   . The nth term of a sequence is an expression that will allow us to calculate the term that is in the nth position of the sequence i.e    is the first term … Read more


Summary Random errors: an error that affects only some observed values and can be reduced by taking average of large number of readings. Systematic Error: an error which is built in the measurement device, it cannot be reduced, however it can be removed if we know the exact error and then we subtract it from … Read more

Quadratic Equations

Summary A quadratic equation is in the form  , A quadratic function has a minimum value when a > 0 A quadratic function has a maximum value when a < 0 Vertex is a point on the where the curve is either maximum or minimum To find the values of the maximum or minimum point … Read more


Summary A function is defined as a rule which assigns each element of set X, one and only one element of set Y.  i.e set   and set  Domain: elements of set X Range: elements of set Y One to One Function: for each element of set Y, there is a unique corresponding element in … Read more